In this episode, we discuss the mechanisms of burning with propofol infusion and explore the evidence behind strategies like mixing lidocaine with propofol. Our guest today is Dr. Stu Forman, Professor of Anesthesiology at Massachusetts General Hospital. He is an investigator on several NIH-sponsored basic research grants and co-director of the Harvard Anesthesia Research Training Fellowship. Connect with us @DepthAnesthesia on Twitter or email us at firstname.lastname@example.org. Thanks for listening! Please rate us on iTunes and share with your colleagues. Music by Stephen Campbell, MD. -- References Bengalorkar GM, Bhuvana K, Sarala N, Kumar T. Fospropofol: clinical pharmacology. J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol. 2011 Jan;27(1):79-83. PMID: 21804712; PMCID: PMC3146164. Dajun Song, Mohamed A. Hamza, Paul F. White, Stephanie I. Byerly, Stephanie B. Jones, Amy D. Macaluso; Comparison of a Lower-lipid Propofol Emulsion with the Standard Emulsion for Sedation during Monitored Anesthesia Care. Anesthesiology 2004; 100:1072–1075 doi: https://doi.org/10.1097/00000542-200405000-00007 Euasobhon P, Dej-Arkom S, Siriussawakul A, Muangman S, Sriraj W, Pattanittum P, Lumbiganon P. Lidocaine for reducing propofol-induced pain on induction of anaesthesia in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Feb 18;2(2):CD007874. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007874.pub2. PMID: 26888026; PMCID: PMC6463799. Fischer MJ, Leffler A, Niedermirtl F, Kistner K, Eberhardt M, Reeh PW, Nau C. The general anesthetic propofol excites nociceptors by activating TRPV1 and TRPA1 rather than GABAA receptors. J Biol Chem. 2010 Nov 5;285(45):34781-92. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.143958. Epub 2010 Sep 7. PMID: 20826794; PMCID: PMC2966094. Jalota L, Kalira V, George E, Shi YY, Hornuss C, Radke O, Pace NL, Apfel CC; Perioperative Clinical Research Core. Prevention of pain on injection of propofol: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2011 Mar 15;342:d1110. doi: 10.1136/bmj.d1110. PMID: 21406529. Klement W, Arndt JO. Pain on i.v. injection of some anaesthetic agents is evoked by the unphysiological osmolality or pH of their formulations. Br J Anaesth. 1991 Feb;66(2):189-95. doi: 10.1093/bja/66.2.189. PMID: 1817619. Sahinovic MM, Struys MMRF, Absalom AR. Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Propofol. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2018;57(12):1539-1558. doi:10.1007/s40262-018-0672-3 Scott RP, Saunders DA, Norman J. Propofol: clinical strategies for preventing the pain of injection. Anaesthesia. 1988 Jun;43(6):492-4. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2044.1988.tb06641.x. PMID: 3261547. __ By listening to this podcast, you agree not to use information as medical advice to treat any medical condition in either yourself or others, including but not limited to patients that you are treating. Opinions expressed are solely those of the host and guests and do not express the views or opinions of Massachusetts General Hospital.